Stratospheric Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Research

Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW): monitoring of the ozone layer

 

WMO informs about the ozone layer

WMO informs about the state of the ozone layer in several ways.

What is ozone?

UV  protection by the Ozone Layer
UV  protection by the Ozone Layer

Ozone is a special form of oxygen with the chemical formula
O3. The oxygen we breathe and that is so vital to life on earth is O2.

 Ozone constitutes a very small part of our atmosphere, but its presence is nevertheless vital to human well-being. Most ozone resides high up in the atmosphere, between 10 and 40km above Earth's surface. This region is called the stratosphere and it contains about 90% of all the ozone in the atmosphere.

Why do we care about atmospheric ozone?

Ozone in the stratosphere absorbs some of the Sun’s biologically harmful ultraviolet radiation. Because of this beneficial role, stratospheric ozone is considered “good” ozone. In contrast, excess ozone at Earth’s surface that is formed from pollutants is considered “bad” ozone because it can be harmful to humans, plants, and animals. The ozone that occurs naturally near the surface and in the lower atmosphere is also beneficial because ozone helps remove pollutants from the atmosphere.

Overview of GAW Ozone and UV activities for 2017- 2021

Information on past Ozone and UV activities supported by GAW Programme for the period between 2017 -2021 and planned activities had been compiled under separate webpage linked here. Its objective is to keep the community informed of different opportunities and to recognize the work of our experts and contributing organizations. Included in the page are short summaries of Quality Assurance and Quality Control activities such as intercomparison campaigns, calibrations; reports from them; new and updated guidelines of observations. Capacity building continues to be in the focus of GAW Programme and took various forms.  In this context a page section is dedicated to a description of refresher and training courses; installations of Brewer spectrophotometers donated by the Government of Canada in different parts of the world; refurbishments and reconditioning of Dobson instruments by the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg (MOHp) in Germany and their relocation; and new ozonesondes observations.  Past and future meetings and important events are also listed with short description of their outcome.

WMO supports new Global Sun-Smart UV App

A new SunSmart Global Ultraviolet Radiation mobile App has been developed by health, radiation and weather experts and is now available globally in Google and Apple App stores. It provides Geo-located 5-day UV and weather forecasts and advises on sun protection times and means along with tailored notifications based on UV levels and weather information. It provides geo-located 5-day UV and weather forecast and sun protection times along with tailored notifications based on UV levels. What makes this App unique is that it offers behavioral prompts to reduce the risks associated with UV exposure based on current UV levels in any location.  In an easy to understand language it provides clear guidance as to when sun protection is required and when it is not and how to protect yourself in all official languages of WMO. The applications can also be adapted with the support of country-level weather services to accept data from local UV measuring stations according to the current user location resulting in more accurate current UV Index readings. More information is available on WMO site here. 

Videos about atmospheric ozone:

English version: "The ozone hole", Q&A with Geir Braathen, WMO Senior Scientific Officer, Atmospheric Environment Research Division, Research Department.
French Version: "Le trou dans la couche d'ozone" Questions et réponses avec Geir Braathen, Fonctionnaire Scientifique Principal, Bureau de la Recherche Atmosphérique et de l’Environnement, Département de la Recherche, OMM.

Joint WMO/UNEP movie about the ozone layer: Click here.

 

WMO Bulletins

The format of  WMO Ozone Bulletins is currently under review. 

WMO Arctic Ozone Bulletins

The Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization, in collaboration with the European Ozone Research Coordinating Unit, issues annual bulletins containing information on the development of the Arctic ozone layer over the course of each winter.  The bulletins are based on data provided by WMO Members that operate atmospheric monitoring stations in the Arctic and satellites to observe ozone and related parameters globally.

2016 http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ozone/
2006
Arctic ozone bulletin 2005-06

The 2006 issue is the first joint WMO/EC Arctic Ozone Bulletin.

 

WMO Antarctic Ozone Bulletins

http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ozone/ http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ozone/
2016 2015
http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ozone/ http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ozone/
2014 2013
2012 2011
2010 Bulletin-1-2009
bulletin no. 1, 2008 cover_o3_bull07
2008
2007
Antarctic ozone bulletins 2005
WMO Antarctic Ozone Bulletins from earlier years

 

GAW Ozone Observing System

The GAW total ozone and profile ozone networks were designated at baseline networks of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) in 2007.

 An overview of the GAW  Ozone Observing System is available here. 

Individual components of GAW Ozone Observing System, their roles, interactions and place in the GAW and WMO Observing Systems are described here.

 

WMO coordinates the global ozone observing network

ozone observations

The WMO-GAW ozone observing system comprises more than 100 stations worldwide that measure total column ozone and ozone profiles in the troposphere and stratosphere. The WMO secretariat coordinates training and calibration excercises. The WMO-GAW World Calibration Centre for Dobson total ozone measurements is located at the Global Monitoring Division of NOAA. The WMO-GAW World Calibration Centre for Brewer total ozone measurements is located at Environment Canada. The WMO-GAW World Calibration Centre for ozonesonde measurements is located at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany.

Up to date summaries of recent and planned activities related to training, inter-comparison campaigns, workshops, latest Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, reports and other documents on Ozone and UV observations and research are available below and in more details under the link here.

Data from the WMO-GAW ozone observing system are collected and stored at the WMO World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC) at Environment Canada, Toronto.

The WMO-GAW ozone observing system provides important data for the assessment of the state of the ozone layer and the data are used in the quadrennial WMO/UNEP Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion (see below). 

 

Contributing Networks

Several observational networks are contributing to the overall GAW system. In the field of ozone observations these two networks are linked to GAW. Click on them to go to their respective web sites.

Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC)

NDACC logo

Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozone Sonde Network (SHADOZ)

 

SHADOZ logo

 

Ozone and UV activities in 2022

International UV Filter Radiometer Comparison (UVC-III), 13 June to 26 August 2022, PMOD/WRC,   WCC-UV, Davos, Switzerland  

 

International Radiation Symposium (IRS),  4-8 July, 2022 in Thessaloniki, Greece. IRS2022 is organized by the International Radiation Commission (IRC), the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS) and the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh)

 

The XVII Intercomparison Campaign of  the Regional Brewer Calibration Center-Europe, Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium (Davos, Switzerland), 22 to 31 August 2022. Registration form will be available at the RBCC-E web page.  Please register before 31st March 2022.

 

Ozone-related publications

Report on the Unexpected Emissions of CFC-11, WMO Library, Ozone Research and Monitoring, 2021 WMO Report #1268    

Report from the XIV Regional intercomparison of the Brewer Calibration Center for Europe (RBCC-E) El Arenosillo Atmospheric Sounding Station of the “Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial” (INTA) 17 – 28 June 2019 GAW Report 257

Report from the fifth Intercomparison of Dobson Spectophotometers (IC/BUA-19) Main Buenos Aires Observatory (Villa Ortúzar) of the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (Argentina) (SMN)  4 - 22 March 2019 GAW Report No. 267

Report from the twelfth Intercomparison Campaign of the Regional Brewer Calibration Center Europe El Arenosillo Atmospheric Sounding Station, Huelva, Spain 29 May - 9 June 2017 GAW Report 248

Report from the International Comparison of Dobson Spectrophotometers, Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa 7–18 October 2019, GAW Report 253

7 March 2015: The following research article has been published under the SI2N initiatiave: Intercomparison of vertically resolved merged satellite ozone data sets: interannual variability and long-term trends. Click here to read the article, published in ACP.

 

Useful links to stratospheric ozone and UV radiation web sites

WMO World Ozone and UV radiation Data Centre (WOUDC)

Ozone maps from WOUDC

MACC/KNMI TEMIS

NASA Ozonewatch

European Brewer Network – EUBREWNET

Regional Brewer Calibration Center for Europe (RBCC-E)-Iberonesia

World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Dobson Ad-Hoc Committee (DAHC)

World Dobson Calibration Center

World Calibration Center - Ultraviolet

DLR World Data Centre for Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (WDC-RSAT)

NOAA-NCEP: Meteorological Conditions and Ozone in the Polar Stratosphere

British Antarctic Survey: Jonathan Shanklin's web site with data in near-real time

CNRS, Service d'Aéronomie, Web site with SAOZ data in near-real time

NOAA/ESRL Global Monitoring Division's Home Page (data from South Pole and other stations)

Brewer data from the Argentine station Marambio (maintained by the Czech Hydrometeorological Inst.)

Ground based and satellite data from the University of Bremen

Data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the AURA Satellite

UV data from Dirección Meteorológica de Chile

Data on ozone and UV radiation from the Antarctic Network of NILU-UV radiometers

UV and ozone web site of NIWA with UV Index forecasts

TOMS and OMI web site at NASA

University of Cambridge Ozone Hole Tour

Ozone web page of the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional of Argentina

 

World Meteorological Organization - United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) joint work 

Meetings of the Ozone Research Managers 

10 November 2021: Dobson Ad-Hoc meeting

15 October 2021: WHO-WMO meeting

8 October 2021: Launch of the UV app

13 September 2021: Ozone day

Part II of the 11th Meeting of the Ozone Research Managers (Online Meeting) 19-23 July 2021

The World Meteorological Organization, in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) arranged the 11th Meeting of the Ozone Research Managers of the Parties to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer as Online Meeting from 19-23 July 2021. The report from the Meeting can be found in Ozone Research and Monitoring series as WMO GAW Report No. 271.

14, 17, 21 June 2021: GAW- EUBREWNET Brewer Operators Training

10 June 2021: WHO meeting

4, 18  June 2021: Brewer observations in South America

3 June 2021: UV observations in Peru

5 May 2021: Brewer observations in South America

4 May 2021: O3 data, standards, repositories and how those could be optimized, serve the needs of our day and not be duplicated (WOUDC, NDAC, EUBREWNET, SAG O3, C3S)

20 April 2021: UV work with WHO

19 March 2021 O3 group activities follow up

18 March 2021: Brewer needs priority

8 March 2021: Brewer observations in South America

2 March 2021: Dobson issues

13 January 2021: Work planning

The 10th Meeting of the Ozone Research Managers: Geneva 28-30 March 2017

The World Meteorological Organization, in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) arranged the 10th Meeting of the Ozone Research Managers of the Parties to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer in Geneva from 28 to 30 March 2017. The report from the Meeting can be found in Ozone Report no 57

The 9th Ozone Research Managers' Meeting: Geneva 14-16 May 2014

The World Meteorological Organization, in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) arranged the 9th Meeting of the Ozone Research Managers of the Parties to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer in Geneva from 14-16 May 2014. The report from the Meeting can be found in Ozone Report no 54.

The 8th Ozone Research Managers' Meeting: Geneva 2-4 May 2011

The World Meteorological Organization, in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) arranged the 8th Meeting of the Ozone Research Managers of the Parties to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer in Geneva from 2-4 May 2011. The report from the Meeting can be found in Ozone Report no. 53.

The 7th Ozone Research Managers' Meeting: Geneva 18-21 May 2008

The World Meteorological Organization, in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is arranged the 7th Meeting of the Ozone Research Managers of the Parties to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer in Geneva from 18-21 May 2008. The report from the Meeting can be found in Ozone Report no. 51.

The 6th Ozone Research Managers' Meeting: Vienna 19-21 September 2005

The World Meteorological Organization, in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) arranged the 6th Meeting of the Ozone Research Managers of the Parties to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer in Vienna from 19-21 September 2005. The report from the Meeting can be found in Ozone Report no. 48.

 

 

WMO/UNEP Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion

Cover Executive Summary of Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion 2018 Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion cover page

2018

2014

2010

main report 2002 assessment  

2006

 

More information about the WMO/UNEP Scientific Assessments of Ozone Depletion can be found at the ozone assessment web pages of NOAA.

 

WMO/UNEP brochure on capacity building for ozone monitoring in developing countries

English

WMO brochure on the protection of the ozone layer

English

French

Global Solar UV Index: A Practical Guide,  World Health Organization, World Meteorological Organization, United Nations Environment Programme and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection

English